To administer a drug is to make the medicine accessible to the patient’s body where the effect is desired. The drug, therefore, is wanted by the Therapist to elicit or manifests an impact where it is desired. For this to occur, the drug should are available in contact with the tissues of organs and cells of muscles by one way or the other, the way the medication comes in contact or is made accessible to the tissue fluids tissues, cells, extracellular and intracellular fluids are the route of administration of the drug.
Selection of Route of Drug Administration:
PLACE OF DESIRED EFFECTS OF THE DRUG
Routes of drug administration:
The ways of medication administration for systemic impact may be classified into two main groups: Oral (enteral) and parenteral (systemic). When the GIT is bypass by medicine or introduction into the lungs. When the medication is the outcome is wanted locally it is administered topically, this is on the skin.
Oral ingestion is the usual antique way of medication administration, another medium where the substance or medication to be administered is fixed in the rectum. Intravectally The potion could be put in the mouth, under the tongue. The drug could be delivered immediately into the stomach utilising intragastric tube.
- Sterility is no imperative
- The risk of acute medication response is minimal
Parenterally “par” means beyond “enteral” means intestinal. This is the way of administration of a drug without passing the intestinal mucosa. This is probably when the drug is immediately into the blood or tissue fluid using a needle and syringe. It is necessary to note that the man that lead to the introduction of the hypodermic needle and syringe is Alexander wood. The common and most generally used parenteral routes are the intravenous route, intramuscular route and subcutaneous route respectively.
Other less frequent routes are:
Tissue infiltration, Intra articular, Intradermal, Epidural, Subaraclinord, Intra-arterial, Intrathecal, Intrathoracic, Intracardiac, Intramedullary, Intratesticular, Intralesional, Subconjuctival and Intramammary.
- Bioavailability is quicker and more likely.
- Gastric irritation and vomiting are provoked.
- Parenteral routes could be used in unconscious, uncooperative and vomiting patient.
- There are no chances of resistance by diet or digestive enzymes.
- Liver enzymes are bypass.
- It is necessary seldom in the absorption of the effective form of the medication.